Ajmer is surrounded by the Aravalli Mountains. It is a pilgrimage centre for the shrine of the Sufi Saint Khwaja Moinuddin Chishti and is also the base for visiting Pushkar(11 km), an ancient Hindu pilgrimage city, famous for the temple of Brahma.
According to Rajputana Gazetteer, Ajmer was held by Chechi Gurjars until about 700 years ago. Ajmer (Sanskrit Ajayameru) was founded in the late 7th century A.D. by Ajayraj singh Chauhan. Chauhan clan is a branch of Chechi Gurjars. The Chauhan dynasty ruled Ajmer in spite of repeated invasions by Turkicmarauders from Central Asia across the north of India. Ajmer was conquered by Muhammad of Ghor, founder of the Delhi Sultanate, in 1193. However, the Chauhan rulers were allowed autonomy upon the payment of a heavy tribute to the conquerors. Ajmer remained subject to Delhi until 1365 when it was captured by the ruler of Mewar. In 1509, control of Ajmer was disputed between the Maharajas of Mewar and Marwar unitil it was conquered by the Marwar in 1532. In 1553, the state was captured by the Hindu Emperor Hem Chandra Vikramaditya, popularly known as Hemu, who was killed in 1556 in the Second Battle of Panipat. The city was conquered by theMughal emperor Akbar in 1559. In the 18th century, control passed to the Marathas.
In 1818 the British forced the Marathas to cede the city for 50,000 rupees whereupon it became part of the province of Ajmer-Merwara, which consisted of the districts of Ajmer and Merwara and were physically separated by the territory of the Rajputana Agency. Ajmer-Merwara was directly administered by the British Raj, by a commissioner who was subordinate to the Governor-General’s agent for Rajputana. Ajmer-Merwara remained a province of India until 1950, when it became the Ajmer State.
Ajmer state became part of Rajasthan state on 1 November 1956.
Ajmer is surrounded by the Aravalli Mountains. The city is sied on the lower slopes of the Taragarh Hill in the Aravalli Range. It is situated almost in the centre of Rajasthan. To the north of the city is a large artificial lake, called Anasagar with a marble structure known as Baradari. Ajmer is protected from the Thar desert by the massive rocks of Nagpathar range.
Ajmer has a hot semi-arid climate with over 55 centimetres (25.4 in) of rain every year but most of the rain occurs in the Monsoon months, between June and September. Temperatures remain relatively high throughout the year, with the summer months of April to early July having an average daily temperature of about 30°C (86°F). During the monsoon there are frequent heavy rains and thunderstorms but flooding is not a common occurrence.
The winter months of November to February are mild and temperate with average temperatures ranging from 15–18°C (59–64°F) with little or no humidity. There are, however, occasional cold weather front that cause temperatures to fall to near freezing levels.
Ajmer is at an important railway junction with Broad gauge lines to Jaipur Marwar, Udaipur,Ahmedabad, Delhi, and Mumbai and then onwards to Bangalore. It is well connected with Jaipur, Delhi, Ahmedabad, Ujjain, Howrah, Bhopal, Mumbai, Jammu, Indore and all other major cities.There is a major technical and repair railway workshop in the city. Ajmer Railway Station has been earmarked for investment under the Public-Private Partnership (PPP) scheme.
Ajmer is a manufacturing trade centre. Notable products include cotton, woolen textiles, leather, hosiery, shoes, soap, and pharmaceuticals. Poultry is a major source of income for farmers. Ajmer also has engineering workshops, re-rolling mills, electronic component plants etc. The nearby town of Kishangarh is one of the largest centres for marble products, employing about 7,000 people.