Jaipur, Rajasthan

Jaipur the capital of Rajasthan state in India was founded on 18 November 1727 by Maharaja Sawai Jai Singh II, a Kachwaha Rajput, who ruled from 1699-1744. Initially his capital was Amber (city), which lies at a distance of 11 km from Jaipur. He felt the need of shifting his capital city with the increase in population and growing scarcity of water.

Jaipur also popularly known as the ‘Pink City’, is the capital and largest city the Indian state of Rajasthan. The unique foundations of the city’s name is from Sanskrit meaning from Jay is victory and Pur is city, another well known country known as Indonesia also have a city named Jayapura that also has the same sanskrit meaning of this city that is also Jaya Pura but shortend to Jaypur.

Jaipur is the first planned city of India and the King took great interest while designing this city of victory. He consulted several books on architecture and architects before making the layout of Jaipur.

Jaipur is one of the finest planned cities of India, located in the semi-desert lands of Rajasthan. The city which once had been the capital of the royalty now is the capital city of Rajasthan. The very structure of Jaipur resembles the taste of the Rajputs and the Royal families. At present, Jaipur is a major business centre with all requisites of a metropolitan city.

The major shopping zone in Jaipur is mid of the Jaipur areas like Johari Bazar, Chaura Rasta, Kishanpole Bazar, also known as Char Diwari area; some of the famous areas in Jaipur include Mansarovar, the largest housing colony in Asia; Sanganer, famous for handmade paper industry; and Sanganeri hand block-printing.

In 1876, Jaipur was colored in terracotta pink to welcome the Prince of Wales, and thus the name “Pink City” was attached with the city. The city was divided into nine blocks, out of which two consist the state buildings and palaces, whereas the remaining seven blocks were allotted to the public. In order to ensure the security, huge fortification walls were made along with seven strong gates.

Founded in AD 1727 by Sawai Jaisingh II, Jaipur the capital of Rajasthan is popularly known as the Pink City with broad avenues and spacious gardens. The capital of Rajasthan, Jaipur is steeped in history and culture. Here the past comes alive in magnificent forts and palaces, blushed pink, where once lived the maharajas. The bustling bazaars of Jaipur, famous for Rajasthani jewellery, fabric and shoes, possess a timeless quality and are surely a treasure-trove for the shoppers. This fascinating city with its romantic charm takes you to an epoch of royalty and tradition.

Jaipur has been laid according to the conventional nine-grid pattern that astrologers believe to be lucky, and which has been recommended in the ancient Indian treatise on architecture. Each grid consists of a square, and these have been planned so that, at the heart of the city is the City Palace. Spread around it, in rows, are public buildings, the residences of noblemen, the living and trading quarters of merchants and artisans. Straight, wide roads run through the city, while a high, crenellated wall that forms its defense is pierced with seven gateways that serve as entry points. Today, these walls may be more difficult to spot since the city has grown far beyond its original plan, but they are still there, proof that though Jaipur saw no great siege, it was more than adequately prepared for it.

Jaipur’s architectural planning may have been ancient, but its execution was definitely modern. Best represented by the City Palace complex, it brought together all that was excellent in Rajput and Mughal architecture, creating a new tradition that found wide currency over much of north India. As in the Mughal tradition, the durbar or court areas became much more open, characterised by a series of arched pavilions held on delicately crafted pillars. Ornamentation had always been a part of the state’s architectural heritage, now it became much more opulent. The private wings of the family also extended their entertainment areas. Since defence was no longer a primary concern, larger, more ornamental windows were built to over look the streets or courtyards outside these wings. Gardens were no longer planned within the internal courtyards only, but were added to the external vistas, and water, a basic feature of Mughal palaces and gardens, was utilised in a similar fashion, in canals and fountains.

Jaipur has much to offer visitors — everything from pageants and festivals to extraordinarily clad people, a wealth of handicrafts, a royal legacy of palaces, and sightseeing — that will occupy their time. However, should the visitors simply choose to walk around the streets of the old city instead, they will not regret it. All of Jaipur is an architectural gem, and no scheduled sight seeing can even hope to do justice to this rare city.

Transportation

Air: Indian Airlines connect Jaipur with Delhi, Jodhpur, Udaipur, Aurangabad, Bombay, Varanasi, Calcutta, Ahmedabad.
Rail: Jaipur is connected by rail with Delhi, Agra, Ahmedabad, Ajmer, Abu Road (Mount Abu), Udaipur, Bombay and Sawai Madhopur.
Road: Good motorable roads connect Jaipur with Delhi 258 km, Agra 236 km, Bikaner 321 km, Udaipur 405 km, Ajmer 131 km, Jodhpur 316 km, Bharatpur 176 km, Jaisalmer 638 km and Bombay 1202 km.
Bus: Regular buses ply from Jaipur to the above places and Alwar, Kota, Sariska, Mathura, Indore, Chittorgarh and Barmer.

Jaipur General Information
Population 66,63,971 (2011)
Area 23.3 sq. km. approx
Altitude 431 m (above sea level)
Temperature Summer Average Max 40.6°C, Average Min. 25.8°C
Winter Average Max. 22.0°C Average Min 8.3°C
Rainfall 64 cm
Season September to March
Clothing Summer – Tropical, Winter – Woolen
Languages Hindi, Rajasthani & English

SAWAI JAI SINGH

The sovereign of Amber, built Jaipur in the eighteenth century. It was also around that time that theMughal Emperor Aurangzeb had died and the decline of the Mughal Empire had set in. Jai Singh had started distancing himself from the affair of the Mughal Court and he began concentrating on building of Amber. His search for a safe place for the increasing population of Amber resulted in Jaipur, This was India’s first planned city and a brilliant architect Vidyadhar Bhattacharya from Bengal was commissioned to plan the city. He designed it in accordance with ancient Hindu treatise on architecture, the Shilpa Shastra (Vaastu).

Jaipur was planned in a gird system with wide straight avenues, roads, streets and lanes and uniform rows of shops on either side of the main roads, all arranged in nine rectangular city sectors (chokdis). The city is surrounded by a wall having seven gates and was built for protection from invading armies and wild animals that lurked just outside in the jungles that surrounded the city. But Jai Singh’s planned city has withstood all the pressures and the changes.

ROMANCE OF PINK – Jaipur needed a fresh coat of paint to welcome its distinguished guest the Prince of Wales in 1905-6. The contractor inability to supply any other color in the required quantity compelled the choice of pink shade for its walls. A contractor’s compulsion famed Jaipur to Pinkcity. Since then the PINK color is associated with hospitality in Rajput culture.

Jaipur has a timeless appeal in its colorful bazaars that delights for its Rajasthani handlooms and trinkets. Beautifully laid out gardens and parks, attractive monuments and marvelous heritage hotels, once the residence of Maharajas, are worth admiration, not to mention the ambling camels and cheerful people in multi hued costumes that make Jaipur a tourist’s paradise.

Jaipur Festivals and Festive Calendar

The Pink City rejoices and celebrates the fairs and festivals with pomp and gaiety since time immemorial. These fairs and festivals reflect the rich culture and heritage of the region. Jaipur has a flair for celebrating every occasion.

  • ELEPHANT FESTIVAL – (March-April) 6 March, 2004, 25 March, 2005, 14 March, 2006, theelephant enthrall the spectators on the day of the Colourful festival of Holi at Chaugan stadium. Beautifully decorated elephants assemble for royal procession, Elephant polo match, races etc. & Rajasthan Folk music & dance performances are part of the festival.
    The sight of mighty jumbos striding majestically is a treat to watch. The mahavats or owners proudly decorate their elephants with bright colours, jhools (saddle cloth) and heavy jewellery. Female elephants are made to wear payals or anklets which tinkle as they walk. Prizes are given for the most beautifully decorated elephant. Even more exciting is the Polo match, the Elephant race, the tug-of-war between elephant and 19 men and women. The most colourful being the playing of Holi on Elephant back.
  • GANGAUR –(March-April) 4-5 April, 2003, 23-24 March, 2004, 11-12 April, 2005, 1-2 April,2006, this festival is celebrated by the maidens and married women, and is dedicated to Gauri, the incarnation of Goddess Parvati, the consort of Lord Shiva. A Colourful procession is taken out from Zanana Deodhi of the City Palace, passing through Tripolia Bazar, Gangauri Bazar, Chaugan and converging near Talkatora for two consecutive days.
    Images of Isar & Gauri are made of clay for the festival. In some families, permanent wooden images are painted afresh every year by reputed painters called Matherans on the eve of the festival. A distinct difference between the idols of Teej and Gangaur is that the idol will have a canopy during the Teej festival while the Gangaur idol would not a canopy.
    The ladies decorate their hands and feet by drawing design with Mehendi (myrtle Paste). The figures drawn range from the sun, Moon and the stars to simple flowers or geometrical designs.
  • TEEJ – (July-August) 12 August 2003, 19-20 August, 2004, 8-9 August, 2005, 28-29 July, 2006, festival marking the advent of monsoon, swings are hung from trees and decorated with flowers. Young girls sing songs of love and about the rain. The festival is dedicated to parvati, commemorating the day when she was united with Lord Shiva, A magnificent procession is taken out from City Palace, similar to the Gangaur procession, for two consecutive days.
  • MAKAR SANKRANTI – celebrated on the 14th of January, every year with traditional fervour, the devotees take a holy dip in the holy tank at Galtaji, it has now also become a kite flying festival, millions of colourful kites come on the sky of Jaipur on this day.
  • ¤ SHITLA ASHTAMI – (March-April) this festival is locally called as Basoda, is celebrated to ward off the dreaded disease of small pox. The most famous fair is held at the Shitla Mata temple in Chaksu (on the Jaipur Kota Road), people gather here to pray and celebrate.
  • DONKEY FAIR – (Khalkani Mata Mela) (October) the donkeys day at Looniyawas near Sanganer, Thousands of donkeys from all over north India are brought here for buying and selling. The donkey races and sports are organised for the merriment of people. A rare sight indeed.

Jaipur Tourist Spots

  • The City Palace – One of the most magnificent marvels or Jaipur is the City Palace Complex which has a rare combination of the finest blends of Rajasthani and Mughal architecture. In the heart of the old city, it has vast area. The outer wall was built by Jai Singh and additions made up to the 20th century. Many buildings, well-planned gardens and huge courtyards are a part of the complex. For visiting dignitaries, Sawai Madho Singh II, constructed Mubarak Mahal (welcome palace) as a reception centre. The mahal comes before the main complex, though it now forms a part of the Maharaja Sawai Man Singh II Museum. The museum has an array of royal costumes, shawls, embroideries, Benares silk sarees, the maharaja’s pyjamas, chogas and pyjamas of other rulers, jamawars, kamarbands, musical instruments like the giant sized tanpura and sarangis and a set of the clothes of Sawai Madho Singh I who was just over seven feet tall, over four feet wide and supported a Goliathic weight of 250 kilograms.

    A delight is the Maharani’s Palace, now the armory with arms to the 15th century which include the deadly Rajput scissor-action daggers which have a unique working action (after the dagger entered the body, the handles were released and the blades spread. during withdrawal, killing the victim). The guns include the ones that also served as walking sticks, one of the size of a small canon fired from a camel’s back, double-barrel guns, early handguns, matchlocks and percussion cap guns, swords with pistols attached to the blades, daggers with handles of crystal and invory, katars, chhuris, peak-kubz jambhiya, Persian and Rajput swords. Deccan hand, bows and arrows, battle axes, shields, maces, breast and shoulder plate gutzis and the ruby and emerald encrusted sword presented by Queen Vicoria to Maharaja Sawai Ram Singh (1835-1880). On display are a big range of shields of rhino, crocodile and turtle skin, the shield of Sawai Pratap Singh and Raja Man Singh’ sword weighing about 5 kilograms.

    Diwan-e-Khas (hall of private audience) is housed between the art gallery (once the diwan-e-aam-hall of public audience) and the armoury. The most attractive feature are the two sterling silver vessels (in the marble-paved gallery) in which Maharaja Madho Singh II, a devout Hindu, took holy Ganga water during a visit to Europe. The two vessels are massive standing 160 cm and have a capacity of 9000 litres each. They are listed in the Guinness book of Records as the biggest silver vessels in the world. From the ceiling of the hall hang a number of chandeliers which are covered with plastic to prevent dust and bird droppings falling on them.

    The art gallery in the erstwhile Diwan-e-aam has a well preserved painted ceiling on which the original semi-precious stones still retain their lustre. Suspended from the ceiling is a massive chandelier made of crystal. The art gallery also has miniature paintings of the Rajasthani, Mughal and Persian schools featuring religious them mainly scenes from the Ramayana. The other exhibits include an unbraided, handwritten version of the Bhagaved Gita, miniature copies of other holy Hindu scriptures, handwritten books in Persian and Sanskrit and early manuscripts on palmleaes There are among the 20,000 manuscripts that the museum boasts of. Howdahs (elephant saddles), palanquins, the swing of Lord Krishna and paper cuttings cut with the thumbnails are among the several other exhibits in the gallery. One can also see the finest carpets from Herat in Afghanistan and Lahore.

    Chandra Mahal is the only part of the complex that is inhabited and is occupied by the royal family. The ground floor of the palace, open to visitors, has some exhibits. In the courtyard outside is the elegantly designed Peacock Gate.
  • Govindji Temple – The city place complex also houses the Govindji Temple and is a temple of Lord krishna and Large number of people visit it. The temple was built in such a fashion that the king could see the deity from the Chandra Mahal, opposite it. The temple is surrounded by gardens and palaces. The image of Govind Devji was originally installed in a temple in Vrindavan.
  • Jantar Mantar – Jantar Mantar is the largest and best preserved of Sawai Jai Singh’s five observatories. It is built in stone and marble whose setting and shapes are designed scientifically and which are one of the high points of medieval highpoints of medieval Indian astronomy. There are also two Ram Yantras for gauging altitudes. Timings : 9:30 a.m. to 4:30 p.m.
  • Hawa Hahal – The palace of winds – The palace of winds a fascinating landmark of Rajasthan, was built by the orders of poet-king, Sawai Pratap Singh in the 18th century and is the most remarkably designed monument in Jaipur. What is seen from the Sireh Deorhi Bazar is the Multi-niched five storey high backside of the complex. it was conceived to provide adequate vantage position behind stone carved mesh like screens to the palace women for watching the royal processions passing through the bazaar. It now has a museum and the collections include paintings, coins, handicrafts and sculptures. ‘Jaipur-past and present’ is the special feature of the museum.
  • Moti Doongari and Lakshmi Narayan Temple – Among the important landmarks dotting the southern horizon is the small privately owned hilltop fort of Moti Doongari which is shaped like a Scottish castle, the Ganesh Temple at the foot of the hill and the marble built Lakshmi Narayan Temple.
  • Jagat Shiromani Temple – The beautifully carved Jagat Shiromani Temple houses the idol of Lord Krishna and is popularly associated with the celebrated saint poetess Mira Bai. The old temple of Narsinghji and a step well Panna Mianki-Baodi, which still bears witness to its past glory are also located in the vicinity.
  • Jaigarh Frot – The western skyline is dominated by the extensive parkotas (walls), watch towers and gateways of Jaigarh. It is one of the few military structures of mediaeval India preserved almost intact containing palaces, gardens, open and covered reservoirs, a granary, an armory, a well planned cannon foundry, several temples, a tall tower and a giant mounted cannon the Jai Ban one of the giggest in the World.
  • Nahargarh Fort – It is 15 kilometers from Jaipur beyond the hills of Jaigarh and is like a watchful sentinel guarding Sawai Jai Singh’s beautiful capital. Much of the original structures are in ruins. From atop a hill, the fort offers a scenic view of the city be low. Rajasthan Tourism has started a cafeteria where Beer and snacks are available from 10 a.m. to 10 p.m.
  • Jal Mahal – Jal Mahal was built by Sawai Pratap Shing in 1799 A.D. in the midst of the Man Sagar Lake as a pleasure spot. The Lake was formed by constructing a dam between the two hills by Sawai Man Singh I. During winter months one can see a large number of migratory birds at the lake.
  • Amber Palace and Fort complex – Situated just over 10 kilometres away from Jaipur on the Jaipur-Delhi highway is Amber, which was the ancient capital of Jaipur State. A bus leaves from Hawa Mahal every 30 minutes and a well-laid out road takes the visitor out of the city and very soon one witnesses lush green hills.
    One then notices a lake and standing next to it is the majestic Amber Fort which several rulers of the erstwhile State of Jaipur recognized as a vantage military building. The excursion start of Jaipur recognized as a vantage military building. The excursion starts with the Dil-E-Aaram Garden which is laid out in the traditional Mughal style. The complex of palaces, halls, pavilions, gardens and temples was built by Raja Man Singh, The Rajput commander of Akbar’s Army, Mirza Raja Jai Singh an Sawai Jai Singh, over a period of about two centuries. One can climb up to the fort from the road in about 10 minutes, go up by a jeep or even on elephant back. The diwan-E-aam (hall of public audience) has latticed galleries and double row of columns each having a capital in the shape of elephants on the top. To the right are steps that lead to the Kali Temple where everyday a goat was sacrificed right up to 1980 when the practice was banned by the state government. The temple offers a wonderful sight and has huge doors made of silver. It is said that Maharaja Man Singh prayed to the goddess for victory during a particular battle. The goddess was said to have come in his dream and said that if he won the battle, then he should retriever her image which was lying at the bottom of the sea. he won the battle, retrieved the image and installed it at the temple of Shitla Devi.
    The maharaja’s residence is at a higher elevation and can be entered through a decorated gateway. The Jai Mandir (hall of victory) has a glittering ceiling of mirrors and elegant inlaid panels. In front of the Jai Mandir is the Sukh Niwas (Hall of pleasure) with a door made of sandalwood, inlaid with ivory with a channel running through which once carried cool water. The zenana or women’s apartments were designed in a manner which could easily facilitate the entry of the maharaja to various chambers without any of the concubines aware of any visitor. Mohan Bari or Kesar Kyari in the centre of the Maotha lake gives a scintillation view from the palaces above it.
  • Swarghashuli/Isar Lat The tower on the western side of Tripolia Bazaar is the highest structure in Jaipur and was builr by Sawai Ishwari singh in 1749 to commemorate an important victory.
  • Ram Niwas Bagh – To provide open space and greenery to the citizens, there is a big garden, with a zoo, an aviary, a greenhouse, a herbarium, a museum and several sports grounds. It was built during the reign of Sawai Ram Singh II’ in 1868 as a famine relief project.
  • Albert Hall – It is situated in the beautiful Ram Niwas Garden. This beautifully designed Saracenic structure was designed by sir Swinton Jacob. It was opened in 1887 as a public museum. It contains a rare collection of decorative art objects, paintings, sculptures, natural history specimens, an Egyptian Mummy and the well known Persian Golden Carpet.
  • Dolls Museum – Located near the Police memorial towards the back side of SMS Hospital is the Dolls Museum. There are attractive dolls from various countries and is housed in the compound of the school for the deaf and the dumb.
  • Sisodia Rani Garden – It is eight kilometres away from Jaipur on the road to Agra. Several landscaped gardens were constructed by the kings and the courtiers in the 18th and 19th centuries with the biggest and the most famouse being one built by Sawai Jai Singh for his Sisodia queen, the Sisodia Rani Ka Bagh. It consists of tiered multilevel gardens with fountains, watercourses and painted pavilions.
  • Vidyadhar Garden – This garden is named after Vidyadhar who was the chief architect and town planner of Sawai Jai Singh II. It falls just before the Sisodia Garden and the gardens have been planned in the medieval style. Every evening. lights concealed at the base of the surrounding hills lighten up the place.
  • Statue Circle – The full length white marble statue of Sawai Jai Singh installed in the centre of the circle in the newly developed C-Scheme area was erected as a tribute to the founder of Jaipur.
  • Gaitore – Eight kilometres on the road to Amer, it has memorials of queens in the Maharani-ki-Chhatri complex near the Ramgarh road crossing, the island palace – Jai Mahal built by Sawai Madho Singh as a pleasure spot at the Man sagar lake and the Kanak Vrindavan complex temples and gardens recently renovated. To the west, in a narrow valley, is the royal cremation ground and the cenotaphs of Jaipur rulers with the exception of Sawai Ishwari Singh, who was cremated outside the Jai Niwas Garden.
  • Galta – In the vicinity of the city, 10 kms. from Jaipur, Galta is situated amidst the range of hills east of the city. On the top of the hill. overlooking the Galta valler is a sun temple. To the east of the temple is a reservoir or a tank which is fed by spring of pure water falling from a Gaumukh or an outlet shaped like the mouth of a cow. On way to Galta, by the Ghat-ki-Guni, is a range of hills crowned with the fort of Amargarh.
  • Birla Planetarium – The planetarium is on the Statue Circe and is made of white marble. One can get a view of the cosmos with the production and sound system of the planetarium.
  • Birla Auditorium and Convention Centre – Over 9.5 acres, it houses a museum, auditorium, (with a seating capacity of 1,300), a library, a planetarium and a big exhibition area. The convention centre hosts major conferences. The entrance facade is a replica of Ganesh Pole of Amber Palace.
Name of Monument Telephone Duration of Opening ENTRY FEE Camera Fee
Indian Foreign Child Indian Foreigner
Jantar Mantar 2610494 9.00 A.M. – 5.00 P.M. 20 100 20
Amber Fort 2530293 7.00 A.M.- 6.30 P.M. 25 150 25 Still-50 Video-100 Still-70 Video-150
Moti Doongari and Lakshmi Narayan Temple 2620969 6.00 A.M. – 9.00 P.M.
City Palace 2608055 9.30 A.M.- 5.00 P.M. 35 150 25 Still-50 Video-150 Still-50 Video-150
Observatory 2610494 9.30 A.M.- 4.30 P.M. 10 10 10 Still-20 Video-50 Still-50 Video-100
Albert Hall (Museum) 2570099 9.30 A.M.- 4.30 P.M. 10 50 5 Not Allow Not Allow
Hawa Mahal (Museum) 2618862 9.00 A.M.- 4.30 P.M. 10 50 Still-10 Video-20 Still-30 Video-70
Jaigarh Fort 2671848 9.00 A.M.- 5.00 P.M. 25 75 Still-50 Video-100 Still-50 Video-100
Nahargarh Fort 5148044 9.30 A.M.- 4.30 P.M. 10 50 10 30
Ram Niwas Bagh & Zoo 2617319 8.30 A.M. – 5.30 P.M. 10 100
Dolls Museum 2619359 9.30 A.M. – 4.30 P.M. 2
Sisodia Rani Garden 2680494 8.00 A.M. – 6.00 P.M. 10
Vidyadhar Garden 2680494 9.30 A.M. – 4.30 P.M. 5
Anokhi Museum of Hand Printing 2530226 10.30 A.M. – 5.00 P.M.
Tourist Palaces in Jaipur

Recreation Centers

Jawahar Kala Kendra 2706560 10.00 A.M. – 5.00 P.M. FREE FREE FREE Still-50 Still-50
Birla Planetarium 2382267 Show-11 A.M. 1,3,5,7,8 P.M. (Hindi) 6 P.M.- English 20
20
20
20
Birla Auditorium and Convention Centre 2385224
Fun Kingdom (Amusement Park) 2398001-2-3 11.00 A.M.- 7.00 P.M. 90 90 75
Pink-Pearl (Water Park) 5141120 12.00 Noon-8.00 P.M. 125 125 80
Revolving Restaurant 2366683-4-5 12.00 Noon-3.30 P.M. ( Lunch) 7.00 P.M.- 11.00 P.M. (Dinner) 250 250

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